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The use of humic fertilizers for plant nutrition has a positive effect on the taste of fruits and vegetables, strengthens green spaces. Not all gardeners know about a useful drug. It is important to know how the product works, what is included in its composition, for which crops it is suitable. Before use, you need to study the rules of use and learn about the precautions when working with the substance.
What are humic substances, how do they affect plants?
Humus is a substance obtained as a result of the processing by soil microorganisms of the remains of the vital activity of flora and fauna. The product directly affects soil fertility.
The most nutritious are chernozems, which contain up to 12% organic additives. The lands located in the middle zone of the country contain no more than 5% of such substances. Fertilizers that accumulate in the soil help to strengthen plants and increase crop yields.
To obtain humus, plant residues are introduced into the soil and earthworms are populated to process compost. Then the product is poured with a weak alkali solution, after which concentrated compounds are formed - humic acids. These substances are used to stimulate the processes of photosynthesis in plant tissues, improve the structure of the soil and air permeability of the soil.
Composition and effectiveness
Humic fertilizers are made from plant materials. Manure and brown coal are taken as a basis. Silt, sapropel are often used, composts are processed.
The agent is produced mainly in the form of a concentrated liquid. This form is convenient to use. The composition of organic preparations includes a set of acids:
- from fulvates.
Fertilizers are also enriched with beneficial fungal microorganisms and mineral additives, including nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and other elements.
Types of humic fertilizers
Manufacturers have developed several types of humic fertilizers. Most in demand are liquid formulations to which other nutrients can be added.
Fluid and soft formulations are used as growth stimulants and for complex plant nutrition. Examples:
|Zhivaya Sila, Ekorost, Edogum SM||For soaking seeds, applying to the soil at the end of the growing season|
|"GUMI-OMI"||For watering flowers, processing planting material|
|Humic dressings enriched with potassium (potassium humate, "Gumi-20" and others)||As a stimulant for the development of roots, to strengthen the immunity of plants, enrich the soil|
This top dressing is suitable for gardeners whose farming methods are based on the principles of natural farming.
For the production of this type of fertilizer, peat is used as raw material:
|Name of drugs||Areas of use|
|"Flora-S"||They process seed material, feed vegetables and fruit trees, grape bushes and other plants|
|"Humimax"||Suitable for caring for indoor plants, increases flowering intensity|
|"Fitop-Flora-S"||Suppresses pathogenic microbes. Used to protect harvested crops from contamination|
Even granaries and home cellars are treated with dry peat-humic fertilizers.
Instructions for use
The humic acid concentrate is diluted in accordance with the instructions on the package. Excess dosages threaten with disturbances in the development of plant culture. The finished composition is not stored, but used for its intended purpose.
Agronomists identify 3 areas for the use of fertilizers:
- Strengthening the seed before placing it in the ground.
- Application of the solution to the soil for root development.
- Spraying the leaves.
An application scheme has been developed for each method.
Bulbs, seeds and tubers are soaked in a solution of humic acid. The recommended drug content is 0.1%. The planting material is placed in the mixture for a period of 18 hours. Processing is aimed at increasing the germination of shoots.
It is necessary to apply humic fertilizers under the root of the plant several times during the season. The first feeding is carried out after planting the plants. Seedlings are watered 2 weeks after placement in the garden. The next session of soil enrichment is carried out when the flowers begin to bloom and then during the period of fruit ovary. They complete the procedures before harvesting.
Zarechny Maxim Valerievich
Agronomist with 12 years of experience. Our best summer cottage expert.
Shrubs and trees are fed first in the spring, do not forget to support the plantings during the summer heat, and the final watering is organized before the leaves fall.
The surface of the leaves is treated with humic fertilizers twice a season. The 20% concentrate is diluted in one thousand times the volume of the liquid. One tablespoon of the drug is required per bucket of water. Spraying is carried out when cloudy weather sets in, or at sunset. The bright sun can provoke a burn of the leaf plate. According to agrotechnical recommendations, the solution is sprayed when the crown is just forming and after flowering is complete.
The production of humic fertilizers is based on the use of organic raw materials. Therefore, drugs are classified as hazard class 4. This category is considered harmless to humans. But some precautions are required:
- Gloves are used when working with liquid concentrates or dry matter.
- If the solution comes into contact with unprotected areas of the body, wash the skin with water.
The greatest danger is accidental ingestion of fertilizer. In such a situation, vomiting should be provoked and adsorbents should be taken.
Contraindications in the use of humic fertilizers
The scope of application of organic feeding is wide, but there are limitations:
- Fertilizers are not suitable for coniferous plantations. Plants get nitrogen from the atmosphere. Additional mineral complexes create an overabundance of the element.
- Humic acids have no effect on increasing the yield of legumes, as well as sunflower and corn.
In greenhouses, the drug is more effective than in a garden or vegetable garden.
Terms and conditions of storage
Diluted humic acid is stored for no longer than a week. The drug in a sealed original packaging will not deteriorate within 3 years. Place humic fertilizers in closed rooms with good ventilation.
Subject to the recommended dosages and timing of application, humic fertilizers contribute to the development of plants and an increase in yield. The drug is effective when processing planting material, spraying and as a root top dressing.