We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
The eggs and meat of these birds contain many nutrients and trace elements. The problem is that guinea fowls, in which the maternal instinct is poorly expressed, often leave the clutch to their fate. Therefore, farmers prefer to incubate their chicks. At the same time, the process of incubation of cesar's eggs requires a careful approach, since if the temperature or humidity level is violated, the whole procedure will be in vain.
Pros and cons of incubation
Incubating guinea fowls has its advantages and disadvantages. The main advantage of this procedure is that it ensures a regular supply of fresh eggs and meat from these birds in large quantities. However, such an occupation requires a lot of effort and responsibility. It is necessary to constantly monitor all indicators, that is, monitor the temperature, humidity, stages of embryo development, turn over in time.
The degree of control depends on the quality of the equipment, but even the most modern incubator requires attention to the setting for 1.5-2 hours a day.
Zarechny Maxim Valerievich
Agronomist with 12 years of experience. Our best summer cottage expert.
In addition, it is necessary to prepare food for future chicks, to build a poultry house that would meet all the parameters.
An important advantage of incubation is that the survival rate of young animals is 70-75 percent of the material being laid. In general, breeding guinea fowls in this way is a profitable and profitable business, both in domestic breeding and on an industrial scale.
Selection and storage of material at home
For incubation, eggs are taken from hens, whose age has reached 7-9 months. The optimal weight varies between 40-45 grams. Safe storage can last for 10 days, but no more. Eggs are stored in this form: the position is vertical, the sharp end is located at the bottom. It is necessary to observe the temperature regime, monitor the humidity (at least 80 percent) and lighting. Do not allow sunlight to enter the room where the incubation material is stored.
Before selection, the poultry is fattened using fish and meat waste. Before placing eggs in the incubator, each of them must be enlightened and checked for unsuitability. In order for the chicks to hatch at the same time and they can develop normally, the mass of all eggs should be approximately the same.
Signs of inadequacy
Eggs that have the following indicators are not suitable for incubation:
- weight is less than 35 grams;
- the shape of the eggs is incorrect;
- there are cracks, build-ups or other defects on the shell;
- inside through the shell, blood clots are visible;
- the presence of two embryos in one egg;
- the shell is more than 50 percent dirty.
How to prepare the incubation material for setting?
Before laying eggs, they need to be kept in a warm place for 2-4 hours. You can place in trays only when the incubator heats up to 38 degrees (in most cases). At this stage, small embryos are separated from large ones and placed in different trays. If the shell is less than half dirty, the surface must be cleaned and only then placed in the container.
During the first two weeks, the temperature and humidity indicators should correspond to 37.8 degrees and 60 percent, respectively. In the future, the temperature is reduced by 1-2 tenths, and the humidity is reduced to 50 percent. When three days remain before the end of the procedure, the temperature is returned to the initial values.
If the device is not equipped with an automatic humidity control system, then a container with water is placed in the incubator for additional air humidification. Starting from the 6th day from the beginning of incubation, the material must be cooled by lifting the lid of the device for 5-6 minutes. From the beginning of the third week, the cooling time is increased to 10 minutes.
Below is a table of the mode and terms of incubation of the material.
|Day||Temperature||Humidity||Number of coups||Airing|
|1-2||37.8 degrees||60 percent||6||not|
|3-14||37.5 degrees||60 percent||4||5-6 minutes|
|15-23 days||37.5 degrees||55 percent||3||10 minutes|
|24-25||38 degrees||65 percent||not||not|
|26-28||37 degrees||68 percent, and when biting up to 95 percent||not||7 minutes|
Checking the development of embryos and translucent eggs
During the entire time the embryos are in the incubator, their development is monitored four times. If unsuitable material is found, it must be removed. If the embryo froze, then the timely elimination of the spoiled egg will avoid rotting, cracking of the shell and the spread of the contents.
The first check (ovoscopy) is carried out on the eighth day of incubation. If no signs of development are found at this stage, it is likely that the eggs have not been fertilized. Such material is removed. On examination, the blood vessels located in the region of the narrow end should be clearly visible. In this case, the embryo itself is not yet detected.
If the embryo is located close to the shell, we can talk about its slow development. The material is translucent with a pale shade, the blood vessels are almost invisible.
The device with which the egg is checked is called an ovoscope. You can do it yourself. To do this, you need a small cardboard box and a 60 volt light bulb, which is placed on the bottom of the container. An oval hole is made in the lid. The size of the latter should be slightly less than the size of the average egg. The second examination is carried out on the 15th day. Discard material with obvious bloody clots on an orange background. The embryos are checked for the third time after 24 days. At this stage, the frozen embryo is easily detected. Such eggs must be removed from the incubator. When hatching appears, the embryos are sprayed with water to increase moisture.
Step-by-step instructions for the whole process
The basic rules to be followed as the embryos develop are as follows:
- Each egg is heated evenly.
- Overheating is excluded. If the embryo shell is hot, the cooling system must be turned on.
- Ventilate the material.
- Carry out ovoscopy.
- Turn the eggs over. The procedure is necessary for uniform heating, as well as to reduce the likelihood of adhesion of embryos to the walls of the shell.
Chicks hatch in an incubator after 26-28 days. Interestingly, young guinea fowls hatch seven days later than chickens. Over the entire period of incubation hatching, the weight of the eggs decreases by 15 percent of the initial weight.
Follow-up care of guinea fowl chicks
The first thing to do after the chicks appear is to carefully select the chicks. Healthy guinea pigs weigh 30-34 grams. After two days, the birds are already on their paws. Signs of unhealthy offspring:
- deformation of the cloaca and umbilical ring;
- dull eyes;
- underdeveloped beak.
The most common mistakes
Common mistakes inexperienced farmers make when breeding guinea fowls are:
- setting the same incubation regime as for chickens;
- untimely overturning;
- lack of moisture;
- overheating of the embryos;
- underheating of eggs;
- incorrect temperature determination.
Breeding guinea fowls by an incubation method is a rather difficult, but effective and profitable activity. During the development of embryos, it is necessary to observe the regime and regularly examine the material for flaws.