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Vaccination and re-grafting of absolutely any cultivated plants, including grapes, belongs to the category of important agricultural activities. Vaccination is inherently a transfer of a part of one plant called a scion, in the form of a cuttings or buds to another plant, or stock, with the aim of their fusion, which occurs as a result of the formation of new cells between the tissues on the cuttings and stock.
Appointment and timing of grafting in spring
Grafting and grafting are not only one of the most common and currently in-demand methods of propagation of this crop, but it also makes it relatively easy to change the variety. In addition, these procedures allow the combination of related plant species to rejuvenate plantations and rehabilitate the vineyard after mechanical damage. The complete reconstruction of plantings with the aim of rejuvenating the vineyard is very popular among winegrowers.
Rootstocks are most often characterized by a greater growth force, as well as a relatively high level of immunity. Besides, high-quality stock has significant regenerative power of the root system and wood. Proper grafting of grapes helps to increase the life span of grapes, its winter hardiness and increase the level of fruiting of the bush, and the plant itself becomes more resistant to diseases and parasitic insects.
The grape spring vaccination involves carrying out events on strictly defined dates: the last decade of April or the very beginning of May. At this time, it is allowed to carry out underground vaccinations:
- in the cleavage;
- end to end;
- on a separate root;
- simple copying method;
- using an adult plant in the year of transplantation;
- when transplanting roots.
The compatibility level of the combined stock and scion is called affinity. The plants grafted in the spring should be covered very carefully for the winter period, since as a result of the grafting of the vine, an accidental breakdown of the grafting site can occur.
How to plant grapes
Selection criteria for grafted grafts
Both the longevity and the productivity level of the grafted stands completely depend on the correct choice of scion and stock. Usually, grafts for grafting are harvested in the fall, in the process of pruning the vine in preparation for winter.
Quality cuttings are obtained from the middle part of the fruit arrow or branch, trimmed into a knot of substitution. The best option is to use a branch that abundantly bears fruit and has a diameter of at least 7 and no more than 10 mm. The standard length of the internodes of such a branch is on average 8 cm. The exception is varieties and hybrids characterized by a thin type of vine.
All foliage, shoots and an unformed tip should be removed from the handle. Each handle should have four kidneys, and the distance from the uppermost kidney should be 2 cm. The slice should begin at an angle from the eye, and the end part should be left straight. To protect against drying out, it is desirable to cover the cuttings section with a layer of paraffin. As a rule, the lower shelf of the refrigerator or a cool basement is used to store material.
Methods of spring vaccination
There are several ways to carry out such a procedure as spring grafting. An important condition for the survival of the scion on stock is abundant sap flow in the plant.
This method of vaccination is practiced on old bushes. The method consists in drilling a hole in the rootstock, which is equal in size to the diameter of the handle. The hole should be as even as possible, and the stalk should be cleaned of the surface bark.
The main conditions are the coincidence of cambium layers on the scion and rootstock, as well as the tight placement of the cuttings in the finished hole. The vaccination site should be sprinkled with damp chips and covered with a film to create a greenhouse effect.
Black Head Vaccination
To rejuvenate the bush of grapes, it is necessary to cut it into a "black head". If you use this method of vaccination, then the first crop can be obtained already in the third year. The method consists in the complete removal of the aerial part of the stem, which contributes to the growth of a new aerial part from sleeping kidneys on the underground stem.
In spring, it is necessary to cut the root stem through the holes dug on the bayonet shovel, clean the place of the cut and sprinkle it with moist soil. After a couple of weeks, new shoots appear. Weak shoots are subject to breaking out, and the most developed shoots need to be pinched at a height equal to the length of future sleeves.
Vaccination in the standard
The optimal time for the spring grafting of grapes in the standard is the second half of April, immediately after the release of plants from winter shelter. At least a couple of scions are installed in the standard, each of which will have three eyes.
Vaccination is carried out in the upper root part. After determining the internode convenient for vaccination, the upper part of the bush should be removed with a pruner or saw. A split is made on the rootstock to accommodate the cuttings, after which the grafting site is coated with plasticine, tied with polyethylene and sprinkled with soil.
Cleavage is the easiest and fastest way. Split vaccination can be either black or green. The green vaccine is based on a scion that is cut off just before the process. The essence of the process is to cleave the stem with a sharp clean knife. Then, prepared cuttings should be inserted into the cleavage, which are sharpened on both sides in a wedge-shaped manner.
Grape Care after Vaccination
In anticipation of the results of the vaccine, time should be given to the plant and ensure proper care.
- The winding of the vaccination site should be tight and tight, but not tight. Concentration should not be allowed. The flowing plentifully of the apiary can cause the death of the plant.
- The shoots should be free of excess growth points, so you should remove the extra stepsons in a timely manner.
- The plant should be provided with timely plentiful irrigation corresponding to the temperature regime.
- It is necessary to treat the plant from fungal infections.
- The soil around the plant should be free from weeds, and shallow cultivation should also be carried out.
After a month, the bandage should be loosened at the vaccination site, and after another week the bandage can be completely removed.
You may also be interested in an article in which we talk about the secrets of autumn grape pruning for beginner gardeners.
How to plant grapes in spring: tips for beginners
Even a not too experienced gardener can independently reproduce, rejuvenate the vine bushes or restore the damaged vineyard through vaccination. It is very important to remember that grafted grafts poorly take root or are completely rejected with insufficiently moist or depleted soil, in conditions of severe shading or when using low-quality grafts.
Quite often, beginning growers make mistakes when vaccinating in the springtime, such as too weak binding of the vaccination site, mismatch of the combi layers on the stock and cuttings, and the use of poor-quality garden tools that make cuts torn or too embossed.
Wrap the vaccination site preferably with a special insulating tape or elastic bandage. It is recommended to perform the procedure in warm, calm, but without the scorching sun, weather. If the vaccination is carried out by a beginner grower on their own for the first time, it is recommended that you first directly see the entire vaccination process performed by a more experienced gardener.
Before starting the procedure, you should make sure that you have the right tool, and also make sure that secateurs, garden knives and saws are well sharpened and disinfected.
Re-grafting adult grape bushes
Spring vaccinations are most often very successful, due to optimal indicators of humidity and temperature conditions. For vaccination, it is advisable to use a graft and stock from plants that have equal growth power. Rootstocks, which are represented by hybrid forms, are considered to be of higher quality. Such plants are characterized by a higher resistance to diseases, and also have excellent frost resistance.