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Siberian fir (Ábies sibírica) belongs to the most common trees on the territory of our country and belongs to the Pine family, or Pinaceae. The birthplace of Siberian fir is Western and Eastern Siberia. The average life expectancy of a tree can reach 200 years.
Siberian fir is an evergreen large-sized. The height of an adult tree can reach 25-30 m. Crohn is very beautiful, narrow, conical, almost columnar. The trunk of the tree is cylindrical in the upper part, and ribbing is observed in the lower part. The diameter of the trunk reaches 55 cm. The branches are quite thin and, when grown in free, single plantings, bend almost to the surface of the earth.
The bark on the trunk is smooth and thin, has a dark gray color. It is distinguished by the presence of thickenings, or nodules, which are filled with fragrant and transparent resin, or fir balsam.
The kidneys are completely covered with scales that fit snugly together and are coated with a protective resin layer. The needles are dark green, not prickly, with a characteristic aroma, flat. Its standard length does not exceed 3 cm. On the bottom there is a pair of whitish strips with a waxy coating. Dying needles leave flat scars on the branches.
Flowering monoecious, in the spring, in May. At the seed ripening phase, the cones acquire a light brown color and reach a length of 9 cm. After shedding in the autumn period, the cones stems characteristic only for this plant remain on the branches.
Siberian fir in medicine
Siberian fir is most often propagated by seed material. In adverse conditions, vegetative propagation is possible, in which a new plant grows from the rooted branches of the lower tier. A Siberian fir transplant is not advisable.
Landing should be carried out in April or September. The best survival rate is shown by seedlings, the age of which varies from five to ten years. When planting on heavy soils, it is imperative to use drainage in the form of 20 cm of gravel and mineral fertilizer. Planting depth can be 60-80 cm. The standard dimensions of the planting pit are 0.5 x 0.5 m or 0.6 x 0.6 m. The root neck of the seedling should be located at ground level.
Siberian fir belongs to absolutely unpretentious cultures. Such trees do not require pruning and crown formation. A couple of years after planting in the spring, it is necessary to fertilize with universal fertilizer. A good effect is observed when using Kemira-Universal.
Siberian fir reacts poorly to excessive waterlogging of the soil, but is responsive to frequent loosening and mulching. In addition, thorough and timely removal of weeds should be carried out. Dry branches need to be cut, and if necessary, the crown can be formed (before the sap flow begins).
Siberian fir, or rather, the substances obtained from it, have found wide application in medicine and are successfully used in many medicines.
Siberian fir extract is very popular in the treatment of gynecological and urological diseases. Its use allows you to get rid of diseases such as impotence, cystitis, colpitis, vaginitis, prostatitis and adenoma. The extract is well established in the treatment of skin abscesses and psoriasis. Besides, extract-based preparations are recommended for everyone whose work is associated with high radioactivity.
Fir Cellular Juice contains a complex of nutrients, including ascorbic acid, carotene, flavonoids and phenolic acids, as well as a significant amount of macronutrients and trace elements, including iron, zinc, magnesium, manganese and copper. It has a general strengthening and tonic effect on the body, helps to strengthen the immune system and reduces the negative effects of drinking alcohol.
Fir essential oil is widely used in the treatment of angina pectoris, rheumatoid arthritis, pneumonia, bronchitis, chronic enteritis, enterocolitis, colitis, diseases of the peripheral nervous system, myositis, plexitis, radiculitis, weeping eczema, toothache, tonsillitis, bruises and fractures, colds, colds, diseases, indomitable cough, mastitis, diaper rash and pressure sores. Essential oil of fir is a part of such preparations as Nikopin, Urolesan, Fitolizin and Abisib.
Siberian fir in landscape design
Over the past few years, Siberian fir has been especially popular in landscape design, which can be used both in single plantings and in small groups. The plant is in demand when creating alley plantings and beautiful hedges.
Fir belongs to dark coniferous species of trees and has excellent shade tolerance, therefore it is optimally suited for planting in shady places. Siberian fir grows well and subject to full lighting, and also has wind resistance.
The following decorative forms are very in demand in landscape design:
- Siberian long coniferous fir "Longifolia".
When planting Siberian fir in alley plantings, it is necessary to adhere to a distance between plants of up to five meters. Trees purify the air and look absolutely harmonious both against the background of building facades and near the water.
The most popular garden forms are Alba, Elegans with silver needles, Glauca with an intense blue hue and Variegata.
How to distinguish fir from spruce
Fir, a large coniferous tree with a pyramidal-conical crown, looks great on personal plots. The plant is very unpretentious and shows excellent survival rate on almost all types of soil, which makes it very popular among summer residents who decided to make their personal plot beautiful and original.