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The picture of climatic conditions in Bashkiria is rather complicated. Here the continental climate is characterized by rather warm summers, as well as snowy, cold and long winters.
Weather conditions often change due to cyclones coming from temperate latitudes that collide with invading Arctic air and winter anticyclones from Siberia. However, even in these rather difficult conditions, local winegrowers successfully grow many varieties and hybrid forms of grapes.
Grape selection criteria for Bashkiria
The climate in Bashkiria is quite suitable for the cultivation of grapes. In order to grow yield grapes in Bashkiria, one should give preference to zoned varieties and hybrids that are adapted to the climate and bear fruit well in the conditions of this region. The very first varieties for cultivation in places uncharacteristic of this thermophilic culture were bred by Michurin.
Nowadays, breeders were able to get a large number of new and promising grape forms for cultivation in adverse climatic conditions. Such varieties are characterized by early maturity, resistance to weather factors and high productivity. A large number of frost-resistant forms and varieties of grapes of early and early maturity were developed which are optimally suitable for cultivation in Bashkiria.
The best grape varieties for Bashkiria
The selection of a variety or hybrid form of grape for cultivation in Bashkiria should be approached very responsibly. Only zoned varieties adapted to climate can produce high and high-quality crops.
|Name of grape variety or NGF||Grape bush description||Description of berries and productivity||Features of grape variety or NGF grape|
|"Alexander"||A plant of medium height, a cluster weighing 137 g, cylindrical, branching is often observed||Berries of medium size, oblong-elongated shape, dark pink color, fleshy, with the accumulation of sugars up to 18%. Productivity is stable and high.||Super early. Universal purpose. Originator - "Bashkir NGO". Resistance to diseases is increased. Increased winter resistance|
|"Bashkir early"||Plants of medium height, require pollination. The bunch is small, loose, with an average weight of not more than 28 g||The berry is relatively small, round, purple, with an average weight of 0.8 g. The skin is dense, the flesh is juicy, and has a sour-sweet taste. Average yields are 145.1 c / ha||Top grade. Bred at the Bashkir Institute for Agriculture and Breeding. Winter-resistant variety, resistant to mildew, but affected by oidium|
|"Anniversary"||The growth of the bushes is strong. Bunches are medium, weighing 122 g. The shape is conical, may be winged||The berry is medium, round, golden in color with a green tint. The pulp is fleshy, with a crunch. The taste is nutmeg. The average yield of 121 kg / ha||Table grade of prematurely ripening. It is highly resistant to diseases and pests|
|"Vasiliy"||Medium growth force, compact bunch weighing up to 215 g||Berries of a blackish-blue color, elongated, elongated, with a sugar content of up to 16.1%||Early ripening. High winter resistance|
|Madeline pineapple||A plant with medium growth force, clusters of medium density, conical or cylindrical, weighing up to 215 g||The berry is medium, oblong, oval, white, the flesh is tasty and juicy. Productivity from each bush to 4,56 kg||Table variety from the Moscow Agricultural Academy of Timiryazev. Affected by diseases at the level of 40%, spider mites - 60%|
|"Dream Squint"||The average growth force of bushes, a bunch of cylindrical, weighing up to 215 g||The berries are medium, oval, reddish brown. The yield from the bush is almost 4 kg||Universal grape variety, early. The incidence of disease without treatment does not exceed 60%|
|"White miracle"||Srednerosly. A bunch weighing 1.50 kg or more, beautiful, moderately loose consistency||The berry is very large, up to 15 g, white, oblong-rounded. The pulp is fleshy, juicy, the taste is very pleasant. Productivity is high enough||Early maturity. Increased resistance to mildew, oidium, gray rot|
|"Bashkir emerald"||Bushes of medium vigor, with well ripening, powerful shoots||The berries are round-oval in shape, green, in the phase of complete ripening, they acquire a golden color and transparency. Slight waxy coating, very original and sweet taste||Table, prematurely ripening. Derived Bashkir SNF. Increased winter resistance|
How to grow grapes in Bashkiria
Preparing and planting seedlings
Grapes in Bashkiria, subject to planting technology, are easy to grow. When preparing seedlings for planting, they are sorted. Today in Bashkiria, varieties are often grown that are not inferior in quality to grapes from the southern regions. The agricultural technology of planting and growing is very simple and available even for beginner gardeners:
- grape seedlings are recommended to be planted in the spring, after the last spring frosts have passed;
- the minimum distance between grape bushes planted on the site is a meter, and the optimal distance should be about 1.5-2.0 m;
- the optimal distance between the rows of grape bushes should be at least 3.0 m, and the rows themselves should be located in the direction from south to north;
- for planting seedlings, you need to dig holes, the dimensions of which are 0.55 x 0.55 m, and a depth of at least 0.55-0.65 m;
- with a close occurrence of groundwater, it is required to provide plants with high-quality drainage, which prevents root decay.
Before planting, 10 kg of humus or rotted compost should be poured into the planting pit, adding 0.3 kg of superphosphate and 55 g of potassium sulfate. Then the poured soil substrate is spilled abundantly with water. The growth point of the seedlings should be perpendicular to the soil, at a height of 2 centimeters.
How to grow grapes in Bashkiria
When cultivating grapes on the territory of Bashkiria, it is necessary to strictly adhere to the requirements of agricultural technology, which are not complicated and have a positive effect on the development of the plant and its productivity.
Basic care rules
When cultivating grapes in non-standard climatic conditions, the main care is to conduct timely measures for irrigating the vineyard, weeding and loosening the soil. Several times during the season should be carried out preventive treatment against diseases and pests. Processing must be completed three weeks before harvesting.
It is advisable to carry out high-quality mulching of the soil under the vine bushes, as well as equip the plantings with a deep watering system. The combination of irrigation with the introduction of liquid fertilizers has a beneficial effect on plants.
Grape top dressing
Standard grape care involves feeding. As organic fertilizers, it is advisable to use slurry or bird droppings diluted in water. It is recommended to feed plants with mineral fertilizers in liquid form.
As a rule, at the vegetation stage, about three root top dressings and a pair of foliar top dressings with microelements are carried out. It is believed that for the full development and abundant fruiting of the grape bush, the plant needs at least fifteen basic elements, so the introduction of complex fertilizers for grapes gives a good effect. As potash-phosphorus fertilizing, you can use wood ash at the rate of 95 g per square meter of vineyard.
Correct and timely pruning of the grape bush not only allows you to increase the volume of the crop, but also has a positive effect on the taste and quality indicators of the berries. Pruning is advisable in the autumn, before covering the plants for the winter. The procedure consists in annually removing or shortening the annual shoots, and, if necessary, pruning the old branches.
You may also be interested in an article in which we talk about the features of summer pruning of grapes.
Tips of Bashkir winegrowers
Grape seedlings adapted for cultivation in Bashkiria are recommended to be purchased by experienced winegrowers from specialists of a special selection center, which belongs to the Agricultural Research Institute and is located in the Kushnarenkovsky experimental garden. All plants bred here are zoned and optimally adapted to the relatively complex climatic and soil features of the region.
Grape varieties for Bashkiria
Interest in grapes has long appeared in Bashkiria. Planting of this plant is increasingly possible to find in the garden plots of not only experienced growers, but also beginner gardeners. Active temperatures in this region sometimes exceed the indicators of the Moscow Region, which makes the cultivation of grapes here very promising and successful. According to Bashkir winegrowers, with proper care, zoned varieties and hybrid forms show high productivity from year to year.