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Grapes (Vitis) is a culture loved by many gardeners. From its berries, excellent wine and raisins are obtained, but you can just eat them fresh. It is nice if the clusters are large, and the berries are poured with juice and not touched by pests. To achieve this, you need competent care, which is selected depending on the variety and the region of cultivation.
Requirements for grape varieties for the Samara region
Before planting grapes in the Samara region, you need to determine the variety. Not all attracted species can grow and bear fruit in the specified region. It is important to consider the frost resistance of the plant, its ripening time and resistance to disease.
Frost resistance requirements
In the Samara region, frost-resistant grape varieties are successfully grown. At the same time, plants still require shelter for the winter. Among other things, the variety for planting should have not only good resistance to low temperatures, but also excellent resistance to drought.
To get a good harvest in the Samara region, it is better to choose early grape varieties. Since there is no lack of light in the region, and most days are clear, there should be no problems with the cultivation of plants. But in the second half of summer, daylight hours are shortened, so it is better to use early varieties so that they have time to ripen.
Resistance to disease
In Samara, the climate is continental, and the humidity is low. That is why the grapes grown here practically do not suffer from oidium and mildew. Pests infect varieties extremely rarely; phylloxera does not occur at all. This means that even varietal varieties that cannot boast of high disease resistance can be grown in this region.
Frost-resistant grape varieties
The best varieties for the region
|Grade name||Features||Features of the fruit||Resistance to frost and disease|
|Radiant raptor (lat. Uvampassamradiant)||Harvest variety, recommended for planting with other varieties|
Raspberry berries, large, no seeds
|In memory of Negrul (memoria Negrul)||Promising variety, good keeping quality||The berries are beautiful, large, papillary||Good stability|
|Christina (Christina)||Bunches hang until October||Berries are large, barrel-shaped, red||Excellent disease resistance and winter hardiness|
Harvest variety, but does not tolerate overload, so it is necessary to ration grapes
Fruits are sweet, sugar, black
|Delight (Jucundum)||Gives a good crop when planting with a pollinator variety||Sugar berries||High frost resistance - up to -25 degrees|
|Sustainable Bulgarian Cardinal (stabilis Bulgarian Cardinal)||Old famous variety||The berries are dark purple, large, nutmeg||Medium stability|
|Laura (Laura)||The variety is famous, the berries have a honey flavor||Large clusters and fruits||Medium stability|
|Elegy (Elegia)||Hybrid varieties "Rusven"||Fleshy, tasty, nutmeg berries||High winter hardiness, requires fertile soil|
|Friendship (Amicitia)||The variety is fast growing.|
|Kodrianka-218 (Codreanca)||Large clusters and berries||Berries are tart, black, large||Medium stability|
Dates and rules of landing
After the variety is selected, you can begin to plant. It should be remembered that grapes are a thermophilic culture, afraid of drafts and loves a lot of sun. These factors must be considered when choosing a place.
The soil must also meet certain requirements. Grapes grow well on sandy loam and can not tolerate stagnation of water, so the groundwater level should not be closer than 2 m from the surface of the earth.
Grapes are planted in Samara in the spring. The optimal time is mid-April to early May. It is important that the soil and air are warmed up to + 10 degrees.
Features of grape care in the Samara region
Grape care should be comprehensive and regular. Digging in the spring and autumn is carried out for normal oxygen circulation. A preventive examination of leaves and shoots for diseases and pests should also be done.
Three times during the vegetative period, spraying with special drugs is carried out to prevent various diseases.
Dates and trim features
Grapes require mandatory pruning in the autumn. This is necessary so that next year the crop is as high-quality as possible. An uncircumcised vine leads to a large formation of ovaries and a strong chopping of berries on bunches. Experts advise pruning the vine for 6-8 eyes. If for some reason the pruning was not performed in the autumn, then in the spring this should be done before the buds open.
How to tie a bush
The grape bush is tied in 2 stages:
- early spring;
The first tying in the Samara region is carried out immediately after removal of the shelter, until the buds have opened. Branches are bent to the lower wire of the trellis and tied up horizontally.
Summer green garter is made after the shoots reach a 50-centimeter length. It is necessary so that the wind does not break the branches of the plant. The material for tying must be soft.
Scheme and timing of fertilizer application
First feeding carried out during the flowering period of the culture. Both organic and mineral fertilizers are used:
- nitrophoska - per 10 l of water 50 g of product per m2;
- the presented solution and 0.4 g of boric acid.
2 weeks after flowering, the time comes second feeding. Fertilizers are the same as with the first feeding.
Third feeding carried out during the formation of berries. It is entered on m2:
- 10 l of water;
- 20 g of superphosphate;
- 1 tbsp. l Kalimagnesia;
- 15 g of potassium salt.
Fourth feeding produced during the ripening of berries. A mixture of 10 liters of water and 2 micronutrient tablets is introduced.
Final feeding carried out in the winter. They make potash fertilizers.
Features of irrigation
Watering grapes loves plentiful, but infrequent. Given that the roots of the plant go deep into the ground, watering should not be at the surface of the earth, but through a special watering pipe, which is dug next to the trunk when planting. It should be remembered that excessive watering leads to cracking of berries, and insufficient - to wrinkling and peeling of the fruit.
Pest and disease protection
The sweeter the grape variety, the greater the likelihood of its defeat by wasps (Vesparum). To insects do not spoil the berries you need:
- to destroy, if possible, all hornet's nests on the site;
- protect grapes with special mesh bags that are on sale;
- put on a plot near the grapes a special protein bait for wasps.
For the first time they are treated for diseases shoots after they have reached a 10-centimeter length. 40 ml of Abiga Peak and 100 g of Tiowit Jet are dissolved in 10 l of water.
Second treatment carried out after 3 weeks. The same drugs are used to protect against anthracnose.
Third treatment grapes in the Samara region fall on time before flowering. 10 l of water and 30 g of Cabrio Top strobilurin are taken, as well as 4 g of Aktara. The presented mixture is enough for processing within 10 days. After that, the early varieties are not processed, except after harvesting with insecticides.
You may also be interested in an article in which we talk about how to properly prepare grapes for winter.
Shelter of grapes for the winter in the Samara region
Shelter for winter grapes produced only after pruning the vine. If the bush has been planted recently, then the shoots can be pressed to the ground and covered with sawdust or fir branches from above. And in winter, with sufficient snow cover, make a snow hill on top, which will additionally protect the grapes from frost.
Large bushes mulch in the near-stem circle and are also sprinkled with snow.
How to plant grapes in spring
Grapes are an unpretentious culture and with a little regular care you can achieve good results in its cultivation.