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Gardeners think about how to grow their favorite plum from a stone at a time when they are unable to get ready-made planting material of the desired variety. It happens that even the name is not possible to find out, but the eaten fruit left an unforgettable impression about itself, and the person was eager to grow such a tree in his garden. There are many subtleties and nuances in this process that must be taken into account.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Growing Plum Seed
The cultivation of plums from seeds is mainly carried out by breeders or summer residents, who set themselves the goal of obtaining a high-quality stock. The disadvantage of this method is that it is practically impossible to preserve the characteristics of the mother plant. Another disadvantage is that the seed does not germinate immediately. Sometimes this process takes 1.5-2 years.
A tree grown from a seed shows the most unpredictable results. This can be either a new variety with improved characteristics, or ordinary wild game, the fruits of which are almost unsuitable for consumption due to the sour taste and small size. Having ventured into the experience of growing a seedling from a stone, they always get excellent material for the stock and cultivate a plant with the desired characteristics.
Recommended varieties of plums
To grow plum trees in the climatic conditions of the middle lane, the following varieties should be preferred:
- Minsk yellow;
- Volga beauty;
- Vitebsk late.
In the climate of the warm south, cultivation is practiced:
- The Kuban comet;
The first of the listed varieties is a cherry plum hybrid.
Harsh continental weather conditions provide an opportunity to successfully cultivate:
- Chinese early;
- Egg blue;
Will the plum tree bear fruit?
When growing a plum tree from a stone, it was possible to get acquainted with the characteristics of the first harvest no earlier than 4.5-6 years after the emergence of shoots.
Selection of planting material
To cultivate plums from the stone, it is necessary to select planting material of varieties resistant to crossing. The fruit at the time of collection must be fully ripe, because the seed of an unripe fruit contains an incompletely formed embryo. You should not take only one seed for planting. To have high chances of germinating a seedling, you need to take several seeds at once.
The most important and crucial moment is the correct germination of the seed.
The main stage of plum seed germination is called stratification. Its essence is to keep the seed in cool and humid conditions. The stratification process involves placing the harvested seed in a nutrient mixture consisting of:
- chopped moss;
- river sand of a coarse fraction.
Before being sent to such a nutrient mixture, the seed is soaked for 3 days in water. In this case, the immersion is performed only half the length of the bone, which provides oxygen access to the embryo. Pre-soaking ensures that the components that retard the development of the embryo are washed out.
Stratification is carried out within 2-3 months. In the first couple of weeks after planting the seed, the air temperature is maintained at + 16-21 C. After that, the dishes with plum seeds are sent to the lower shelf of the refrigerator, where the air temperature is + 1- + 6 C. There, the planting material is stored for about 65-80 days. ...
Before the very sowing of the seeds, the plums into the pot, the temperature at the place of their content is lowered to 0 C. The duration of their keeping in such conditions is 25-30 days. Ideally, you can recreate the desired temperature regime in the basement. In this case, it is necessary to monitor the moisture level of the nutrient substrate, in which mold may appear. In this case, you should immediately treat with a solution of potassium permanganate.
Planting in a pot
You can plant a seed in a pot when it swells well and the skin bursts. If such changes have not occurred, then the probability of emergence of seedlings from such planting material is minimal. To plant plum seeds in a pot, you need to choose the right composition of the nutrient substrate. A mixture of expanded clay is laid at the bottom, which provides good drainage. After that, a layer of river sand of a coarse fraction is poured, and then the main layer of a nutrient substrate is added.
The bottom of the pot must be perforated. This will help protect the plant from the development of fungal diseases, as well as avoid stagnant water, leading to decay of the root system.
A pot for cultivating a plum tree from a stone must be at least 19 cm in diameter. Otherwise, the plant will not be able to receive a sufficient amount of nutrients and develop normally, as a result of which it will die before planting in open ground.
Required soil composition
The main soil layer for germinating a plum seed in a pot is mixed from the following components in equal parts:
- leafy land;
- any humus.
As a drainage layer, which is laid on the bottom of the planting tank, expanded clay is most often used, on top of which coarse river sand is poured.
The prepared soil is first moistened, and then the bone is buried into it by 5 cm.It should be placed as close as possible to the center of the pot. Previously, it is recommended to hit the seed with a hammer so that it does not split into 2 parts, but cracks a little. Such actions contribute to the awakening of the embryo inside.
If several seeds are planted in one container, then they should not touch each other. After planting, the container is covered with cellophane and removed to a warm, well-lit place. After 1.5 months, a sprout should appear.
Conditions for germination
Plum seed germination will be crowned with success only if a number of necessary conditions are met.
The air temperature in the room where the plum seed germinates should be maintained at + 20-25 C. Humidity is an equally important indicator. With low humidity, there is a need to take measures for additional humidification using a spray gun or a humidifier specially designed for such purposes.
The soil should be irrigated no more than twice a week. Watering should be abundant. For these purposes, water heated to room temperature and previously settled water is used.
After the emergence of seedlings, the plum grown from the stone is fed with nitrogen-containing fertilizers. Ammonium nitrate is suitable for fertilization. However, it must be used with extreme caution, in accordance with the attached instructions. Otherwise, the root system burns, and the plant dies.
When to wait for sprout shoots
Seedlings of a seed-sprouted plum hatch about 45 days after sowing in a pot. In order for the plant to be able to bear fruit in the future, the seedling must be transferred to a new vessel of larger volume every 3 months. It will be possible to send it to open ground only after a year.
If you don't want to mess with pots and seedlings, you can plant a plum seed right in your garden. For such purposes, a small amount of any humus is added to the slightly acidic soil, the planting site is moistened and the existing bones are planted there to a depth of 10 cm.The pit for planting is prepared 15 x 20 cm in size. The seed is sprinkled so that a small mound is formed on top... In order to protect the planting from rodents, the poison should be spread around the hole.
It is recommended to plant plum seeds in open ground in an elevated place on the north side. With this arrangement, the snow will linger longer, and the seedling will be protected. The area for planting is well-lit, protected from drafts. Better to give preference to places along the fence.
For better survival of the seedling, any organic fertilizer should be poured into the bottom of the hole, and also a little calcium-rich eggshell should be thrown. In the process of growing a young tree, it is important to constantly keep the soil moist, but at the same time not to allow excess water to stagnate. When planting seeds in open ground, seedlings may appear only after 1-2 years.