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Raspberry is a favorite berry of many. For beginning gardeners, it is from the raspberry planting that their country life often starts, filled with worries about their own garden and garden. One of them is the correct and timely pruning of raspberries in the fall. Is she needed? How to spend it?
The purpose and timing of autumn pruning raspberries
Autumn pruning of raspberries is carried out in order to increase productivity with the help of the correct formation of its plantings. It is known that the roots of raspberries are perennial, and the shoots bear fruit for no more than two years. Where they are allowed to grow freely, raspberries "run wild", capturing more and more new sites. There are few berries in these dense thorny thickets, they are small, and it is not easy to collect them. To raspberries always pleased with the abundance of large and juicy berries, and did not turn into a kind of garden invader, it is necessary to regularly cut it.
Autumn pruning is done before the cold, which in some places may come at the end of October. But many experienced gardeners advise not to delay it until late autumn. If warm autumn days stand for a long time, then garden pests manage to start up in raspberries before the cold. Therefore, you can carry out its autumn pruning immediately after harvesting - in early September.
Trimming Technology: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners
Before autumn pruning raspberries, you need to carefully examine the bushes and determine which shoots need to be disposed of and which ones to leave. This manipulation is done with a sharp secateurs so that the cut is neat and the wound is small. The following trimming technology should be followed:
- Remove old, broken, diseased and pest-affected branches.
- Cut weak young shoots that are clearly not overwinter.
- Get rid of two-year-old shoots that will not bring a new crop, but will interfere with the appearance of young twigs, shading them. It’s easy to distinguish such branches. Their bark is dark, hard, they abound in lateral large-leafed shoots.
- Thin out thick bushes, where over a dozen stems have grown per square meter. Here they use a sharp shovel, with which they make outlines in the ground in a circle at a distance of 20 cm from the raspberry bush. Then, a space outside this circle is dug up with cutting of unnecessary stems and removal of weeds.
- All these branches need to be trimmed at ground level so that pests do not breed on the stumps left. And then they must be burned, otherwise you will not get rid of the enemies of raspberries. They winter well under the snow.
- After trimming, the remaining stems must be fertilized with iron sulfate.
When and how to prune raspberries in the fall
Features trim pruning raspberries
In order to correctly prune repair raspberries, you need to consider its features. For some of the varieties having the usual two-year fruiting period (Zhuravlik, Sentyabrskaya, Progress), more often two methods are used:
- Those who want to get the maximum yield in the first year are not recommended to rush with autumn pruning. It can be carried out according to the usual scheme in late autumn.
- If you sacrifice part of the autumn harvest of the first year (no more than 40%), then in the second year you can get abundant fruiting. In this case, in September, most of the bush is cut flush with the ground, leaving only a few of the most developed and strong one-year stems. From the more developed rhizome next spring there will be many young branches on which you can wait for a plentiful harvest.
Many modern berry varieties (Heracles, Brilliantovaya, Penguin, Indian Summer-2) differ from other remont raspberries in that they form abundant peduncles in all parts of the shoot in the first year. This variety of raspberries needs to be completely cut after the first frost. Only in this case, the next year they will show the properties of remontance in full on young shoots.
If you leave uncircumcised stumps for the winter, the raspberry tree will be reborn, the effect of getting two harvests from it per year will be lost. The bushes will be low, and the risk of infection with raspberry mosquitoes or bugs will increase significantly.
There are also raspberry varieties that are not remontant, but exhibit these properties during mild autumn (Yellow Giant, Kostinbrodskaya, Indian Summer). For them, late autumn pruning should be carried out differentially, removing only those parts of the shoots from which the berries were collected. On the remaining uncircumcised parts of the branches, the crop will appear next season.
Rules and features of getting rid of overgrowth
Raspberry shoots, if not timely fought against it, are the scourge of many gardens. She can fill the entire plot, freely moving to vegetable beds. Green shoots should be cut with a sharp shovel at the beginning of the season, when they have not yet sprouted deeper than 10 cm. The main roots of the plants remain intact. There are a number of ways to deal with the growth of raspberries.
- Digging trenches around the perimeter raspberry and in the aisles. Their depth and width should be about half a meter. The bottom of these ditches is filled with a nutrient mixture of superphosphate, potassium sulfate, wood ash, earth. Such a layer should occupy a third of the depth of the trench. Its upper layer consists of a mixture of humus, superphosphate, potassium sulfate, ash and earth.
- Enclosure of trenches with insulating materials: slate, roofing material, plastic wrap. They should not have gaps - loopholes for seedlings. These barriers are buried to a depth of 30 cm, which prevents the penetration of offspring. After all, they are found no deeper than 25 cm. The roots that feed the plants easily overcome this barrier.
- The roots of winter garlic and sorrel raspberry bushes planted in the aislesprevent their roots from moving in that direction. And the shoot does not appear in this case.
Preparing raspberries for the winter: do you need to prune
The preparation of raspberries for wintering should be taken care of in the summer, so that the wood on the young shoots has time to ripen, and the roots get stronger. To do this, at the end of August, after harvesting, fertilizing plants with potash and phosphorus fertilizers is carried out 2-3 times. The last time they are brought before the frost - in October.
To do this, prepare such mixtures (per meter square area):
- Under mature bushes - 50 g of superphosphates and wood ash are diluted in a liter of water, for young plants the dose is halved.
- 5 kg of humus or 5 buckets of manure - every 3 years.
- 250 g of complex fertilizer, which includes phosphorus, potassium, ammonium sulfate.
- 3 g of zinc sulfate and 5 g of manganese sulfate.
Usually, organic matter is alternated with mineral fertilizers.
An important measure for successful wintering of the roots is the mulching of the soil around the bushes before the onset of cold weather. Here you need to know a few rules:
- Before mulching, raspberry should be watered abundantly so that in winter the roots are not dried out.
- For raspberries, neutral acidity is preferred. Therefore, coniferous sawdust is not suitable as a protective litter. It is better to use straw, peat, beautiful foliage.
- The mulch layer should be 7-8 cm. A thin layer does not prevent the evaporation of moisture from the soil. A too thick layer is fraught with the danger of root rot.
Raspberry shoots winter well under the snow, withstanding sub-zero temperatures of up to 35 degrees. So that they can be completely protected by snow cover, at the end of September still quite flexible branches bind, bend to the ground and pin.
In winters with little snow, you will need to cover the plants with sheets of cardboard, agrofibre (lutrasil, spanbond). The shelter is laid in several layers and fixed or buried a little in the ground on both sides.
How to increase raspberry crop
To save the plants from the harsh wind and retain the snow, from the windward side, additional barriers from sheets of plywood, polycarbonate are installed. They are mounted on trellises.